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Bird name:

Ruff

Philomachus pugnax

Order

CHARADRIIFORMES

Family

Sandpipers (Scolopacidae)

BTO 2

RU

BTO 5

RUFF.

Euring 5

05170
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ILLUSTRATION

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PHOTOS

CONSERVATION STATUS

UK Conservation Status


Red Status

European Conservation Status


Conservation Description


The Ruff migrates through and winters in various coastal areas of the UK, Isle of Man, and Ireland, and is a localised breeding bird in eastern England. It has a "Red" status because of declines in its small, localized population.

SUMMARY

Overview

Ruff: Medium-sized wader with black crown and puffy neck feathers that can be red-brown, white, black, or grey. Grey and tawny-brown upperparts with black mottling, black on breast, and white belly and vent. Brown-yellow bill and face, and yellow-orange legs and feet. White "v" shape on rump.


Range and Habitat

Ruff: Passage visitor in the UK & Ireland. Visible all year, but likely to be seen on passage to winter grounds in Africa. Most commonly seen on the coasts. There is a very small breeding population. Can be seen on large estuaries and in marshes or other coastal wetland.

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SONGS AND CALLS

Voice Text

"tu-wit"

INTERESTING FACTS

  • Ruffs are highly gregarious, with a wintering flock of 1 million birds reported in Senegal.
  • It is usually considered the only member of its genus Philomachus, but more recent research indicates that the Broad-billed and Sharp-tailed Sandpiper may belong there too.
  • The males display at a lek during the breeding season, standing erect, crouching or taking a variety of postures with the ruff erected.
  • A group of ruffs are known collectively as a "hill" of ruffs.

RELATED BIRDS

RANGE MAP


FAMILY DESCRIPTION

TERMINOLOGY

CREDITS

Author

Artist

Yury Lisyak

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RuffX
A fringe of feather growth on the neck of a male bird used in courtship displays.
UpperpartsX
Back, rump, hindneck, wings, and crown.
BellyX
The ventral part of the bird, or the area between the flanks on each side and the crissum and breast. Flight muscles are located between the belly and the breast.
BreastX
The upper front part of a bird.
CrownX
The crown is the top part of the birds head.
FaceX
The front part of the head consisting of the bill, eyes, cheeks and chin.
RumpX
The area between the uppertail coverts and the back of the bird.
VentX
Birds do not have two separate cavities for excrement and reproduction like humans do. In birds, there is one single entrance/exit that suits both functions called the vent, cloaca or anus.
4 and 6 letter alpha codesX

The four letter common name alpha code is is derived from the first two letters of the common first name and the first two letters of common last name. The six letter species name alpha code is derived from the first three letters of the scientific name (genus) and the first three letters of the scientific name (species). See (1) below for the rules used to create the codes..

Four-letter (for English common names) and six-letter (for scientific names) species alpha codes were developed by Pyle and DeSante (2003, North American Bird-Bander 28:64-79) to reflect A.O.U. taxonomy and nomenclature (A.O.U. 1998) as modified by Supplements 42 (Auk 117:847-858, 2000) and 43 (Auk 119:897-906, 2002). The list has been updated by Pyle and DeSante to reflect changes reported by the A.O.U from 2003 through 2006.

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ITIS CodesX

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) was established in the mid-1990 s as a cooperative project among several federal agencies to improve and expand upon taxonomic data (known as the NODC Taxonomic Code) maintained by the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

To find the ITIS page for a bird species go to the ITIS web site advanced search and report page at http://www.itis.gov/advanced_search.html. You can enter the TSN or the common name of the bird. It will return the ITIS page for that bird. Another way to obtain the ITIS page is to use the Google search engine. Enter the string ITIS followed by the taxonomic ID, for example "ITIS 178041" will return the page for the Allen's Hummingbird.

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Parts of a Standing birdX
Head Feathers and MarkingsX
Parts of a Flying birdX